Synthetic chemical pesticides are used for chemical control and are the most efficient for controlling insect pest populations in the shortest intervals, but many risks are associated with the use of synthetic chemicals or chemical pesticides. Although growers and greenhouse management-related persons must inspect greenhouses regularly and should use biological, physical, and mechanical means to reduce pests, the use of certain chemicals can be optimized with other control measures to reduce severe infestations.
These chemicals are a subcategory of synthetic chemical pesticides and are used to kill nematodes. Parasitic nematodes cause huge losses to the growing plants, economic losses to worldwide agriculture, and greatly threaten overall food security. Although there has been a lot of research to find organic ways for controlling nematodes but chemical nematicides are still most effective for the management of nematodes. The use of anthelmintics as nematicides in the soil is also being promoted to control nematodes for agricultural sustainability.
However unplanned and long-term uses of carbamate and organophosphorus nematicides have caused reduced control efficiencies in the fields due to improved resistance of nematodes against these chemicals. The significant benefits of nematicides application can be obtained by considering the following points.
- Identification of types of parasitic nematodes present in the vicinity of growing plants.
- Population densities and growth patterns of nematodes in the surroundings and rhizosphere.
- Calculation and designing application depth, application rates, and timing intervals before specific plantations.
- Precisely following all directions and instructions on the nematicides labels.
- Carefully evaluating the soil and environmental conditions such as wind speed, rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature.
- Avoiding the application of nematicides in high-speed winds and heavy rainfall.
- Economical and cost-related factors must be considered for the proper profit return. Most probably nematicides should only be applied to high-value crops.
- Phytotoxicity levels must be properly considered to avoid environmental contamination.
- Improper application may cause residual problems and therefore only the required dosage of nematicides should be applied after careful application.
- Soil volumes should be considered then the infestation focus and saturation point must be considered for precise application.
- Persistence levels and movement of chemicals should also be considered to get an idea about the contact of applied chemicals with nematodes.
- Toxicity, associated risks, and health hazards of nematicides must be considered for manufacturing, volatility, accidents, application, and handling.
- The temperature-dependent effect of residual nematicides on the activities of soil microorganisms must be properly considered for the protection of soil biodiversity.
- Using marigolds as an alternative to chemical nematicides is also a good choice to avoid the harmful effects of nematicides.
- Amino acid as nematicides plays a significant role to offer protection from nematodes and therefore the use of biological nematicides must be promoted for sustainability.
- Commercial bio nematicides are also available in the market and their use must be promoted on a sustainable basis to improve production and food security.
- The infection process of Rhizoctonia solani on Solanum tuberosum and the effects of granular nematicides must be properly studied for optimization of the application.
- Furthermore, the effects of nematicides on non-target soil invertebrates population in turfgrass should be investigated properly.
Miticides or Acaricides
These chemicals are used to control the mites and their work mechanism is based on the contact action. Mites are small and numerous and great care and attention are required to identify their living area. Miticides or acaricides provide the best control of ticks and mites. While some miticide products may act as fungicides or insecticides as well.
Tetradifon, over, dicofol, and azobenzene are commonly used throughout the globe. Whereas many miticides chemicals are well known to kill eggs, larva, and adults of mites and ticks. However, scientific studies have demonstrated that some miticides may cause harmful effects on beneficial insects and therefore the use of these chemicals must be wisely planned.
Best results of miticides application can be obtained by considering the following points.
- Do not spray miticides during windy and rainy days.
- Buy the right miticide packaging according to the level of infestation and the extent of the problem.
- Properly dispose of the leftover product to avoid harmful effects on beneficial insects, pets, and surroundings.
- Pouring leftover miticide chemicals in the drain is an illegal practice so packaging size should be carefully selected.
- Miticides should be properly applied to the undersides of the leaves as it provides ideal habitat for hiding and building web. This is essentially important for applying contact miticides.
- Leftover miticide should be stored in the safe and original container and must be kept out of range of children.
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Molluscicides as Synthetic Chemical Pesticides
These chemicals are used to control slugs and snails. These chemicals must be a part of the food of snails and slugs for killing them. Molluscicides are also known as slug pellets, snail pellets, or snail baits and are specifically used against the gastropods pests such as slugs and snails.
Molluscicides are of two types such as oxidizing molluscicides and non-oxidizing molluscicides. The latter is most commonly used due to cost-effectiveness. Although these are more expensive the use of smaller quantities offers excellent results.
Oxidizing molluscicides compounds include potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and chlorine. Metaldehyde is the most commonly used molluscicide and is being used in slug-tox, namekil, limatox, halizan, deadline, ariotox, and antimillace.
Target Specific Chemicals
These include narrow-spectrum insecticides and are more selective for specific pest groups. These are essentially helpful for greenhouses as they help to kill only specific insects and do not cause any harm to the beneficial insects. Their mode of action is based on interference with the normal growth and metabolic processes and preventing their reproductive activities. Some of these chemicals cause death of embryos in eggs, complete loss or reduced mating potential, twisted wings, and abnormal molting.
Broad Spectrum Chemicals
These insecticides are a subcategory of synthetic chemical pesticides that can kill a good range of insects by affecting their nervous system. Some good examples of these insecticides include carbaryl, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and acephate.
Fungicides as Synthetic Chemical Pesticides
Fungicides are used to control the fungi causing plant diseases, rots, and molds. Fungicides offer preventive treatments than curative and their working mechanism is based on the contact action. Most of these chemicals are sprayed on the larger surface areas for effective control against the fungus. While some fungicides are based on a systemic mode of action and are directly injected or fed to the plants for protection. Usually, fungicides are divided into two major types such as eradicates and protectants.
- Protectants offer similar functions to human vaccines, but they must be properly applied before the disease develops. These are especially helpful if a particular disease is supposed to happen at a specific time. Mostly these chemicals are used for vegetables and fruits in the greenhouses.
- Eradicates chemicals have similar working functions like that of antibiotics and penicillin to cure diseases in humans. Their use of less common as compared to the protectants because they are more expensive and have average work efficiencies.
Fungicide Treatment as Synthetic Chemical Pesticides
Diseases cause major damage to the growing plants and crops but proper application of fungicides can help to reduce the plant pathogenic organisms. Fungal diseases and fungi attacks are major reasons for causing quality and quantity losses of yield throughout the globe. Basically, fungicides are used for three basic reasons such as
- For controlling diseases development of occurrence during the plant growth and developmental stages.
- To improve crop production without major losses.
- To improve the quality of harvest/produce and improve the shelf life for better consumption.
Fungi also spoil the stored fruits, vegetables, seeds, and tubers. Some infested grains have the capability to produce mycotoxins and can cause illness or death in animals and human beings. The use of fungicides can greatly reduce the level of mycotoxin contamination and thereby helps to protect animals and humans from diseases. Although the use of fungicides is not greatly recommended as these are toxic chemicals and can cause soil and environmental contamination. Therefore, plant diseases must be managed by the consideration of multiple management factors as follows.
- Selection of disease-free and resistant plant seeds, and cultivars
- Planting at appropriate times
- Optimizing fertilization according to plant needs, soil type, and environmental conditions
- Modification of micro-climatic conditions
- Proper sanitation
- Application of right and required amount of fungicides
Fungicide treatment is most commonly applied in the form of gas, liquid, granules, and dust. Usually, these formulations are applied to the following plant parts.
- Inside tree trunks by using injections.
- Spraying in the packaging house to protect harvested produce.
- Spraying plant foliage and all other above grounds parts.
- Directly spraying the soil at plant base or in-furrow at plantation times. Moreover, it can also be applied as a soil drench along with irrigation water application.
- Roots of transplants, bulbs, seeds, and other plant propagation organs. Usually, these treatments are done by seed or seedling companies. However, growers should also do some treatments at the plantation site before the seeding or plantation.
Fungicides are formulated products and consist of active ingredients and inert ingredients to improve the performance of the sprays. Typically these chemicals are mixed with the water and are carefully applied to the infected areas only. In the greenhouses, fungicides can be applied as aerosol, fog, mist, or smoke. All plant parts must be properly covered by the fungicides because fungus can easily move throughout the plant parts. The classification of fungicides is based on different aspects and some important classes are mentioned below. Similar one:Food Scraps as Valuable Resources
Mobile vs Contact Fungicides: Contact fungicides remain stuck on the plant surface and are not absorbed by the plant parts. These offer protective barriers and cause the prevention of fungal entry and potential damage to the plants. While systemic fungicides work by absorbing into plant parts and can easily move from the application site to the infected plant parts. Whereas this movement is significantly variable by moving from old tissues to new tissues, older to new growth, and top to bottom of plant surfaces.
Preventive fungicides vs curative fungicides: The working mechanism of preventive fungicides is based on preventing the potential entries of fungicides to the plants. The effective results of these fungicides can only be obtained after proper contact of the fungus with the plant. However curative fungicides are used to treat the plant after infection and help to reduce the adverse effects of fungal attacks.
Proper application of these fungicides can stop the diseases immediately after the disease attacks. While both curative and preventive fungicides can easily move in the plant parts. Both preventive and curative fungicides are ideally important to prevent the fungal attack on the plants and to reduce yield losses.
Fungicide treatment helps to reduce the fungal problems by damaging the fungal cell membrane, inhibiting the growth and developmental processes of fungi, and pinpointing multiple or single processes in the fungus. Different modes of action can be incorporated by the application of a combination of products or alternative products for the improvement of the effectiveness of fungicide resistance. Also Like: Smart Digital Farming