Biofortification is a long journey from soil to grain but is essentially helpful to reduce hidden hunger. For the food chain, the plants are at the beginning so enhanced uptake of minerals from the soil to plant parts is essential for the consequence of biofortification (Hirschi, 2008). Agronomic biofortification is the application of mineral fertilizers to plants either by soil application or by foliar spray for increasing the mineral contents of edible plant parts.
Efficient Soil and Crop Management to Improve Mineral Nutrients in Plants
Efficient soil and crop management can provide effective means for resolving Fe and Zn deficiency on a sustainable basis. Fertilization greatly helps to increase the mineral contents of plant edible portions. Agronomic biofortification is a holistic approach for increasing the grain Zn and Fe contents. It could be proved as a sustainable strategy to tackle the problem of micronutrient deficiencies.
Complexities Related to Fertilizers Solubility and Bioavailability
In the soils where mineral nutrients become unavailable for plant uptake and utilization then the targeted application of inorganic fertilizers is practiced which is easily soluble and bioavailable. In some cases where mineral fertilizers are not soluble in soil solution then the foliar application of appropriate inorganic fertilizers is made.
Therefore, inorganic fertilizers play an important role in food security. Biofortification by fertilization of trace elements is a difficult approach for developing countries and technically it is not feasible for complex molecules.https://soilplantfood.com/elimination-of-hidden-hunger-by-micronutrients-remobilization/
Application of Zn and Fe Fertilizers for Biofortification
The application of Zn and Fe fertilizers is a useful and quick solution for the production of biofortified food crops and this approach can be easily practiced in countries. The problem with applied fertilizer is that it is not bioavailable for plant uptake. Much of the applied fertilizer is fixed due to the fixation and chelation losses in soil.
Therefore, there is a decisive exigent need to adopt new fertilizing strategies for encouraging and promoting healthy production. Optimized application of mineral fertilizers and for improved solubilization and mineralization of applied mineral nutrients is a practice of worth and it has been implemented in various parts of the world.
Combined Application of Mineral Fertilizers to Reduce Hidden Hunger
Combined strategies of application of mineral fertilizers in a proper way and along with breeding techniques is an immediate technique to increase the concentration of mineral nutrients in edible plant parts and also improves production potential on low fertility lands. Foliar application of Zn remarkably increases the grain Zn contents than the soil application of inorganic Zn fertilizers. Similar results were obtained for Fe concentrations as well. https://soilplantfood.com/role-of-iron-for-life-and-iron-deficiency-across-the-globe/
It is important for people to know what is the difference between organic and inorganic fertilizers, the disadvantages of inorganic fertilizers, the impact of inorganic fertilizers on environment, types of inorganic fertilizers, comparison of organic and inorganic fertilizers, effects on the coastal environment by inorganic fertilizers, effects of organic, and inorganic fertilizers on soils and crops. https://soilplantfood.com/role-of-zn-for-life-and-zn-deficiency-across-the-globe/
Agronomic Biofortification to Reduce Hidden Hunger
Soils contain large amounts of micronutrients but only a little fraction is a photo available. Usually, the application of inorganic fertilizers to these soils is not effective as it immediately becomes unavailable to plant roots soon after application to soil. They rapidly react to form chemical precipitates and are not available for plant uptake. Since the last few decades, scientists have realized that the currently used agronomic technologies are no longer useful to enhance field production on a sustainable basis.
Foliar Application of Nutrients for Biofortification to Combat Hidden Hunger
Foliar application is a useful agronomic biofortification strategy that provides mineral fertilizers in the most appropriate photo available form but it has some limitations due to some oxidation, reduction processes. Also, it is not a feasible approach in windy areas. By increasing the concentration of bio-available Zn and Fe in soil supply, it is possible to get higher yields and higher concentrations of these mineral elements in plant parts.
A single application of Zn fertilizers can have significant effects over several years. Considerable research has been conducted for the determination of economically effective methods to prevent Fe and Zn deficiency by agronomic approaches but still much more needs to be explored. Biofortification vs GMO is a hot concern nowadays and biofortification is the ultimate winner as it does not cause any negative impact on human health.