Effects of Deficient Irrigation and Partial Root Zone Irrigation on Wheat Crop

Effects of Deficient Irrigation and Partial Root Zone Irrigation on Wheat Crop

Deficient irrigation Understanding and the management of spatial and temporal patterns for the soil water and its availability and deficiency for spring wheat is a critical aspect to stabilize yield and food security. Drought has negative effects on the growth and development of most crops and severely limits the wheat quality and quantity of yield (Yang et al., 2020).

Why it is important to give attention to deficient irrigation?

The practices for opting for water-saving techniques should be focused to understand the mechanisms behind the biochemical, and physiological processes.

Factors affecting irrigation requirements

The effects of deficient irrigation and partial root-zone irrigation are also dependent on soil type, climatic conditions, specific varieties of spring wheat, and growth stages (He et al., 2013). The main mechanisms behind improved yield production and quality due to deficient irrigation, and partial root-zone irrigation are the development of drought hardiness, stimulated osmotic adjustment, enhanced signal transduction of guard cells, optimized control over the stomatal gas exchange, and reduced luxurious loss of transpiration (Yactayo et al., 2013; Parvathi et al., 2013).

Effectiveness of deficient irrigation to increase water use efficiency

Deficient irrigation is an effective irrigation approach to increase water use efficiency (WUE) and to reduce irrigation water requirements as in this way spring wheat plants can minimize water consumption by reducing soil evaporation, and leaf transpiration. The maintenance of water potential is greatly dependent on the intensity of applied water-deficient conditions, deficient irrigation, and partial root-zone irrigation (Hernandez-Santana et al., 2016).

Effects of deficient irrigation during different growth stages

Deficient irrigation during flowering, and grain filling stages is also responsible for reduced yield due to sinking capacity, reduced grain setting, oxidative damage to assimilated translocation, and photo-assimilatory machinery, and accelerated leaf senescence (Farooq et al., 2014).

Physiological responses of spring wheat to the stress associated with deficient irrigation, and partial root-zone irrigation have a direct relation to the opening, and closing of stomatal rhythms, stomatal density, and fluctuation in the size of stomatal cells. Stomatal behavior of plants under deficient irrigation, and partial root-zone irrigation causes the regulation of chemical signaling responsible for providing water to the plants.

 

Effects of deficient irrigation on spring wheat

Interaction between deficient irrigation and spring wheat planting patterns are key features affecting the growth, and development of wheat (Ali et al., 2017). Partial root-zone irrigation is a newly developed method of irrigation mainly intended to improve WUE without negatively impacting the growth and yield of spring wheat.

In this way, the evaporation loss from the soil is declined by 50%.

Effects of deficient irrigation on wheat enzymes

The increased production of ABA also causes the triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduces the synthesis of cytokinin that interrupts the normal functioning of other signaling molecules. However, there is the regulation of proline production and antioxidant defense system mechanism. Resultantly the elevated level of stress on plant growth is reduced and this technique can be used to improve wheat tolerance against drought, and phenotyping plasticity (Wang et al., 2013).

The production of cytokinin along with the defensive mechanism of ABA helps to tolerate drought by improving WUE, photosynthetic rates, and activation of the defense system.  Also Like:  Genetic engineering

Benefits of deficient irrigation

Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between stomatal closure and abscisic acid synthesis under deficient irrigation, and partial root-zone irrigation. Enhanced responses of antioxidants defense mechanism in the wheat crop have a direct association with stomatal closure and thereby help to improve  WUE and quality and quantity of grains.

The abscisic acid produced under the water-stressed conditions is carried to leaves via xylem vessels where it acts as a regulator for the osmotic adjustments. Also Like: Synthetic Chemical Pesticides for Effective Pest Control

References

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Ali, S., Xu, Y., Ma, X., Ahmad, I., Kamran, M., Dong, Z., … & Jia, Z. (2017). Planting patterns and deficit irrigation strategies to improve wheat production and water use efficiency under simulated rainfall conditions. Frontiers in plant science, 8, 1408.

Barideh, R., Besharat, S., Morteza, M., & Rezaverdinejad, V. (2018). Effects of Partial Root-Zone Irrigation on the Water Use Efficiency and Root Water and Nitrate Uptake of Corn. Water, 10(4), 526.

Batool, A., Cheng, Z. G., Akram, N. A., Lv, G. C., Xiong, J. L., Zhu, Y., … & Xiong, Y. C. (2019). Partial and full root-zone drought stresses account for differentiating root-sourced signal and yield formation in primitive wheat. Plant Methods, 15(1), 75.

Chang, Z., Liu, Y., Dong, H., Teng, K., Han, L., & Zhang, X. (2016). Effects of cytokinin and nitrogen on drought tolerance of creeping bentgrass. PloS one, 11(4), e0154005.

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Yang, M. D., Leghari, S. J., Guan, X. K., Ma, S. C., Ding, C. M., Mei, F. J., … & Wang, T. C. (2020).      Deficit Subsurface Drip Irrigation Improves Water Use Efficiency and Stabilizes Yield by          Enhancing Subsoil Water Extraction in Winter Wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11.

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